Are female politicians less warlike than men? Some evidence from European queens

Elizabeth_Great_Seal_Ireland

A large scholarship claims that states led by women are less conflictual than states led by men. However, it is theoretically unclear why female leaders would favor more conciliatory war policies. And, it is empirically challenging to identify the effect of female rule, since women may gain power disproportionately during periods of peace.

We surmount this challenge by exploiting features of hereditary succession in European polities over the 15th-20th centuries. In this context, women were more likely to acquire power if the previous monarch lacked a male first-born child, or had a sister who could follow as successor.

Using these factors as instruments for female rule, we find that queenly reigns participated more in inter-state conflicts, without experiencing more internal conflict. Moreover, the tendency of queens to participate as conflict aggressors varied based on marital status.

Among married monarchs, queens were more likely to participate as attackers than kings. Among unmarried monarchs, queens were more likely to be attacked than kings. These results are consistent with an account in which queens relied on their spouses to manage state affairs, enabling them to pursue more aggressive war policies. Kings, on the other hand, were less inclined to utilize a similar division of labor.

This asymmetry in how queens relied on male spouses and kings relied on female spouses strengthened the relative capacity of queenly reigns, facilitating their greater participation in warfare.

A new paper, Queens, by Oeindrila Dube and S.P. Harish.

50 thoughts on “Are female politicians less warlike than men? Some evidence from European queens

  1. I am Mrs.Sandra Bents from Germny, God has bless me with two kids and a loving husband, I promise to share this Testimony because of God favor in my life,2months ago I was in desperate need of money so I thought of having a loan then I ran into wrong hands who claimed to be a loan lender not knowing he was a scam. he collected 2,000USD from me and refuse to email me since. then I was confuse, but God came to my rescue, one faithful day I went to Court after the Case of my friend I share idea with a friend and she introduce me to ERIVAN LOAN COMPANY, she said she was given 50,000USD by MR ERIVAN , THE MANAGING DIRECTOR OF ERIVAN LOAN COMPANY . so I collected his email Address ,he told me the roles and regulation and I followed, then after processing of the Documents, he gave me my loan of 30,000POUNDS .you can contact him on via email : ([email protected]) I am sure he will help you.

  2. There is a new wave in the Internet that is sweeping people online on making their first commission through the Web. This new wave of online money-making is called Financial Breakthrough. We are a professional carding team with a large ring around the globe, we are selling Credit Cards, Blank ATM card, CVV, Untraceable Ip, Bank accounts hack, Individual computers hack, Websites hack & sales of Dumps card of all kinds!! Our blank card can withdraw the sum of $5000 daily which can be used in any ATM machines. We are the real deal in all degree of hacking & our cards are for sale at an affordable rate!! If you’re interested in buying blank ATM card or any kinds of card required, do email us for more detail: [email protected]

  3. The process of war is a complex phenomenon. Can a woman leader be warlike? Yes. Can female soldiers kill masses of other men, women? What about unarmed women and children? That’s the big question. Soldiers are the ones who do the fighting, killing, and dying. And the living with physical and mental scars afterwards. If only women could participate in war from the presidents, generals to the lowest potato peeling grunt I don’t think wars would last very long. After seeing the first pile of dead pregnant women and infants the masses of soldiers would scream for some other way to solve political differences. Sure there would be a few outliers but the majority would lose any enthusiasm for killing. Even modern male centered armies need enormous discipline training and psychological conditioning to do the ugly business. Push button warfare with drones and missiles helps since you don’t have to see the “enemy” suffer. But an all female military could not maintain the critical esprit de corps once the pictures of homeless people and burning homes came in.

  4. We have a direct genuine provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of 4+2 of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA.

    Contact : Mr. Leon Tourish
    Email:[email protected]
    Skype ID: [email protected]

    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All inquires to Mr. Leon Tourish should include the following minimum information so I can quickly address your needs:

    Complete contact information:
    What exactly do you need?
    How long do you need it for?
    Are you a principal borrower or a broker?

    Contact me for more details.

    Leon Tourish